Cooperative research studies bring together multiple investigators from academic or research institutions across the United States. The goal is to improve treatment for patients by harnessing the resources and talents of the many sites. Usually, one of the participating institutions takes a leadership role in coordinating the conduct of the trial and providing administrative services to the other sites. Examples of cooperative research activities are those coordinated by oncology groups such as RTOG, ECOG or SWOG. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regulations permit institutions involved in multi-institutional studies to use reasonable methods of joint or cooperative review [21 CFR 56.114 and 45 CFR 46.114, respectively]. While the IRB assumes responsibility for oversight and continuing review, the clinical Investigator and the research site retain the responsibility for the conduct of the study.